This article incorporates text from a free content work. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN disease, MLND, corn lethal necrosis) is a viral disease affecting maize (corn) predominantly in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, which was recognised in 2010. (Photo: George Mahuku/CIMMYT) This announcement by Dr. L. M. Suresh was originally published on the Maize Lethal Necrosi s Information Portal of the International Maize and … Efforts in managing the maize lethal necrosis disease have contributed to reducing seed production losses, an expert has said. It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMoV) of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), wheat streak mo… The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease, which appeared in the region in 2011, has caused major losses to maize crops, decreasing food security and the ability of the smallholder farmers to provide for their families. Therefore, samples were tested for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), which is present … International coalition keeps devastating maize disease at bay, but risks still linger. [2], In late 2014, it was reported that MLND could cut Kenya's maize production by as much as 30%. Late infected plants don’t tassel and tend to produce poor grain filled cobs. Maize streak virus (MSV) Maize stripe (maize chlorotic stripe, maize hoja blanca) Maize stripe virus. SFERA - Special Fund for Emergency and Rehabilitation, Emergency Management Centre for Animal Health. The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. Maize tassel abortion virus (MTAV) Maize vein … Maize chlorotic mottle virus is not present in … License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons, "Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) - A snapshot", "Kenyan Corn-Disease Outbreak May Cut Output by 30% This Year", "Kenya: Disease Hits Kenya Maize Expectations", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Control vectors of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Prevention and detection of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND)", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Maize lethal necrosis disease in maize", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maize_lethal_necrosis_disease&oldid=989924511, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 20:02. Text taken from PMDG: Maize lethal necrosis disease in maize (Zambia), Mathews Matimelo (ZARI), CABI. This article incorporates text from a free content work. They also recommend not moving infected maize plants and seeds to disease-free areas. [6], Partners of the CABI-led programme, Plantwise recommend where possible using certified, disease-free seed. Unlike maize streak virus disease though, the streaks of MLND are wider. 2011). MDMV alone can cause serious disease in maize, sweetcorn, and sorghum. Disease is associated with the presence of maize thrips and the growth of several crops of maize annually. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. High yield losses in maize due to MLN ranging from 50 to 90% have been reported and can reach 100% where the disease pressure is high. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. This disease is caused by infection with 2 viruses at the same time: Maize chlorotic mottle virus, and Maize tassel abortion. [9] Forward genetics is increasingly being used.[9]. Maize lethal necrosis, a disease caused by a set of viruses, results in up to 100 per cent yield losses, thus having a devastating impact on food security and smallholders’ incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). MDMV alone can cause serious disease in maize, sweetcorn, and sorghum. Infected plants die prematurely. Situation. In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. An alarming threat to food security … MLN is a disease caused by combined infection of maize plants with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV; genus Machlomovirus, family Tombusviridae) (Niblett and Claflin, 1978), with any one of several viruses from the family Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) or … For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by the combination of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a virus belonging to the potyviridae family. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. The whole plant dies and maize cobs remain without kernels. Text taken from PMDG: Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) (Ethiopia), Kassahun Sedessa (EIAR), Mebrahtom G/kidan (TBoARD), Habtie Abate (S/Gondar Agri Dept, Amhara), CABI. It is also recommended to plough and expose soil to sunlight for at least 2 months. for at least 2-3 years/seasons and removing alternate hosts including, sorghum, grasses, millet, wheat, oats, sudan grass. It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMoV) of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) or others. Maize sterile stunt virus (strains of barley yellow striate virus ) Maize streak. MLND can also cause dwarfing and premature aging of the plants. MLND symptoms can be confused with symptoms of nutrient deficiency but plants affected by MLND appear only in some areas and are scattered or clumped in a field while nutrient deficiency appears on many plants over large areas of a field. [7], Another method of prevention is to leave land fallow for 2 months especially where maize is produced using irrigation. Corn plants are very heavy feeders and even the most fertile of soils may need to supplemented with nutrients as the plants develop, particularly nit… Maize lethal necrosis was first identified in the USA in 1976 ( Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ). Text taken from Plantwise Factsheet for Farmers: Prevention and detection of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease, Hiwot Lemma, Daniel W. Michael, Mhreteab Tsegay, CABI. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. An international collaboration of scientists is developing germplasm screening to identify disease resistance in corn, and training programs for East African scientists to manage maize lethal necrosis in East Africa. The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). The double … 2012b), was first reported in The main thrust of the current management strategy is to prevent the introduction of the disease through sound surveillance and early destruction of … Older leaves (bottom of plant) remain green. The disease has since been confirmed in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and similar symptoms have been reported in Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Ethiopia. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. It has caused great concern because plants are killed and little or no grain is produced. [5], In the early stages, MLND causes long yellow stripes on leaves. Viruses involved in maize lethal necrosis disease. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. Insects spread this disease from plant to plant.Young leaves of maize begin to yellow and dry from the base to the tips and … When maize lethal necrosis (MLN) was first reported in Bomet County, Kenya, in September 2011 and spread rapidly to several countries in eastern Africa, agricultural experts feared this emerging maize disease would severely impact regional food … But it is also one of the viruses that cause maize lethal necrosis disease. Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms (Photo 1a and Photo 1b) is caused by the synergistic co-infection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus symptoms (Photo 2) and any virus from the family Potyviridae, these include wheat streak mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus symptoms or sugarcane mosaic virus symptoms (formerly maize dwarf mosaic virus-B… Basic requirements Corn is best grown in warm, tropical and sub-tropical regions as it requires warm soils to develop optimally. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. But it is also one of the viruses that cause maize lethal necrosis disease. This virus ordinarily produces mild symptoms when present alone in corn; however, when a key second virus … [4], Leaves of infected plants become yellow from the tip and margins to the centre. Maize lethal necrosis disease is caused by maize chlorotic mottle virus and sugarcane mosaic virus attacking the plant at the same time. Since then the disease has been reported in Rwanda and DR . Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. Maize is critical for food security in SSA; eastern and southern Africa use 85% of the maize produced as food, while Africa as a whole uses 95% as food (Shiferaw et al. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. [7], MLN resistance is an important trait to maize breeders. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops.Infection rates and damage can be very high, seriously affecting yields and sometimes causing complete loss of the crop. In Kenya, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN) (Wangai et al. As the disease advances, the maize leaves become yellow and dry out from the outside edges towards the midrib. Ears and leaves dry up and sometimes look like a mature plant. Maize is the main staple food for several million families in sub-Saharan Africa. This article incorporates text from a free content work. The disease has a serious effect and causes much damage if the maize becomes infected early in the growing season and availability of water is low and high temperatures occur. Finally, the entire plant dries out and dies. One of the most important requirements for growing corn is a high quality soil which is deep, fertile and well-draining with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. Its presence has been confirmed in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic … declining acreage under maize cultivation and demands of fast growing population (Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2010). Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a new, devastating disease in East Africa that leads to severe production losses and, in many cases, complete crop failure. This disease is caused by infection with 2 viruses at the same time: Maize chlorotic mottle virus, and; MDMV (or one of its relatives). Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) causes a variety of symptoms in maize depending upon genotype, age of infection and environmental conditions. beans, faba bean, chickpea etc.) Based on previous editions produced by CIMMYT maize [6][7][8], The Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Ethiopia recommend uprooting and burning of diseased plants. The disease prevents the plants from growing tall, causes yellowing and death of the leaves, and stops the ears from growing and setting seeds. A serious new disease of maize appeared in the farmers' fields in eastern Africa in 2011. Dead plants can then be seen scattered across the field among healthy looking plants. [1][2], Spread of the disease is driven by expansion in the range of maize chlorotic mottle virus, which is thought to be transmitted by species of thrips including maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi) and possibly western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. The Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease is threatening food security for the majority of households in ECA. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. The most commons are the potyvirus Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus () or the tritimovirus Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV). The double infection of the two viruses gives rise to what is known as MLND, also referred to as Corn Lethal Necrosis (CLN). 1 Introduction This popular booklet, already in its fourth edition, is designed as a quick guide for identifying maize diseases. The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). [3] In early March 2015, the middle of the rainy season, losses were estimated at 10%. SUMMARY: Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a new viral disease for Africa. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: It is caused by a combination of two viruses that are difficult to differentiate individually based on visual symptoms. Maize lethal necrosis, a disease caused by a set of viruses, results in up to 100 per cent yield losses, thus having a devastating impact on food security and smallholders’ incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). MAIZE LETHAL NECROSIS HISTORY In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya was positively identified as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND). Symptoms similar to MLN were reported in Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan and Ethiopia. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on maize in Kenya. However, with high incidences of fungal contamination in MLND infected maize observed in maize … Abstract Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a complex viral disease, emerged as a serious threat to maize production and the livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011, primarily due to the introduction of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) screening facility at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Naivasha in Kenya. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. One virus is maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) which, until its appearance in Kansas, was only known to occur in South America. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on maize in Kenya. Plantwise and partners also recommend rotating with non-cereal crops (e.g. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. The potyviruses responsible for MLN are transmitted by several species of aphids and, in the case of wheat streak mosaic virus, wheat curl mite. Maize is the staple food crop for subsistence farmers in East Africa. In potato, co-infection by Potato virus X and Potato virus Y causes synergism. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: firstly, it is caused by a combination of viruses; secondly, it can be spread through seed and by insect vectors that may be carried by wind over long distances. 2012; CIMMYT, 2012). Researchers have established a link between declining maize yields and MLN (Wangai et al. Corn lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the same plant. However, the observed symptoms were more severe than commonly associated with MCMV, suggesting the presence of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a disease that results from maize infection with both MCMV and a potyvirus (4). Text taken from Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers: Control vectors of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease, Joyce G. Kessy, CABI. This article incorporates text from a free content work. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN disease, MLND, corn lethal necrosis) is a viral disease affecting maize (corn) predominantly in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, which was recognised in 2010. Effects of the maize lethal necrosis disease . Maize lethal necrosis is a re-emerging disease that has reached epidemic proportion and is threatening food security in sub-Saharan Africa. 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